Three or More (TOMS) Study

Report type: 
Year published: 
TOMS Final Report
(1.11 MB)

The major aim of the 2007-2008 Three or More Study (TOMS) project was to provide data on risk behaviour and condom negotiation in a cross-sectional sample of homosexually active men who engage in group sex. The study was conceived and designed in consultation with ACON, with funding from the New South Wales (NSW) Department of Health for the NSW component of the study, and additional support from VAC and QAHC to enable the study to be extended to Victoria and Queensland respectively.

Key findings: 
  • 1,354 men were recruited through onsite recruitment at commercial sex-on-premises venues and organised sex parties, through organisations and networks catering to men who engage in group sex with other men, and online through commercial gay ‘cruising’ websites.
  • In total, 1,205 questionnaires were sufficiently complete to be useable. Among these, 994 men were eligible for participation in the study as they had participated in a group sex event within the previous five years. Most of these men (832) had done so within the previous year.
  • Most participants identified as gay and one in seven as bisexual.
  • The median and mean age was 39 years.
  • Half the men were resident in Sydney, one in six in Melbourne and one in ten in Brisbane. The remainder either failed to provide their place of residence or lived elsewhere in Australia.
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