1998 April Australian HIV Surveillance Report

Year published: 
1998 April Australian HIV Surveillance Report (pdf)
(458.97 KB)

The Australian HIV Surveillance Report has been published on a quarterly basis from July 1990. Reports published from January 1994 are available below. Each report includes article(s) on topics of general interest in the epidemiology of HIV and related infections updates on the number of cases of newly diagnosed HIV infection and AIDS in Australia estimates of HIV incidence and prevalence among people seen through a network of sexual health clinics in Australia.

The Australian HIV Surveillance Update provides a brief summary of HIV and AIDS diagnoses in the most recent quarter, the most recent year and cumulative counts. The Australian HIV Surveillance Update was published separately prior to the July 2000 issue of the Australian HIV Surveillance Report. Updates post April 2000 are included in the Australian HIV Surveilance Report.

Key findings: 
  • By early 1997, South and South East Asia accounted for an estimated 5.2 million (23%) of the 22.6 million adults and children living with HIV infection in the world. About one third of adults living with HIV infection in the region are female.
  • The estimated prevalence of HIV infection in the 15 –– 49 year age group varies from zero in Korea to one per several thousand in most countries in the region, including Australia, to 2-3% in Cambodia, Myanmar and Thailand. As the HIV epidemic in the region is still relatively recent, HIV disease, including AIDS, is only beginning to occur.
  • HIV epidemics in the Asia-Pacific region are diverse, localised and have different trends over time. Against this backdrop, however, it is becoming increasingly clear that the intensity of HIV epidemics associated with sex work, affecting both female sex workers and their clients, is primarily determined by the number of sexual partners per sex worker, the frequency of use of commercial sex by men, and such other factors as the rate of regular condom use in commercial sex and the magnitude and quality of the response to the epidemics.
  • Although rapid transmission of HIV infection among injecting drug users and their sexual partners has been documented in the region, these epidemics have, to date, resulted in limited HIV transmission in the broader heterosexual population.